ETSU and the Center of Excellence for Sport Science and Coach Education (CESSCE) had a strong presence at the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) National Meeting this past week in San Francisco.
Sport science professors Dr. Michael Stone, Dr. Hugh Lamont, and Dr. Kimi Sato were joined by CESSCE Director Meg Stone, along with PhD students Mark Chiang, Jeremy Gentles, Howard Gray, Keith Leiting, Chris MacDonald, and Jake Reed.
As well as attending lectures, workshops, and special interest group meetings, the students presented ETSU sport science research in three posters and two oral presentations.
Chieh-Ying Chiang, Timothy McInnis, Kimitake Sato.
Using a Vertical Jump as Monitoring Purpose of Resistance Training Progress for Women’s Volleyball (Poster Presentation)
Strength is the ability to generate muscle force. Athletes who have higher strength generate higher power output. Intensive resistance training can improve strength and power, and monitoring progression is a vital component of the athletes’ development. The efficacy of measuring force output as part of a monitoring program during intensive resistance training period needs to be established.
Purpose: To monitor women’s volleyball team’s off-season strength training protocol by periodically measuring the peak force output during squat jumps.
Methods: Nine collegiate women’s volleyball players participated in the study during their off-season (age: 21.3±1.4 yrs, height: 179.4±8.6 cm, mass: 67.4±4.6 kg). They reported to the laboratory for initial squat jump (SJ) test to measure peak force output prior to their off-season resistance training program. Then they underwent a 4 days/wk resistance training program for 10 weeks. To monitor progress, the athletes performed SJ bi-weekly to measure the peak force (total 5 tests). The statistical analysis was performed to identify whether the peak forces over 6 testing sessions to be similar or not. The peak force output from each player was tracked and analyzed using repeated-measure ANOVA to see if there is any difference (p = 0.05).
Results: The repeated-measures ANOVA was calculated comparing peak force output over six times: from initial test to the 10th week. A significant difference was found (F(5,40)=3.52, p < 0.01) with effect size of .301. Follow-up t tests revealed that the peak force output increased significantly from initial test to week 6, week 8, week 10, and from week 2 to week 8.
Conclusions: The peak force value increased gradually to show some improvement from the resistance training. Monitoring athlete performance is essential to maximize performance and prevent excessive fatigue or overtraining. Peak force output from SJ on a force plate is a quick and seemingly relevant test to monitor athletes’ physical status. Although this study was based around off season training, this monitoring program could also be employed during in-season training when fatigue management and performance maintenance is the most important. Monitoring data could also be used by strength and conditioning professionals to design periodized programs.
Reducing Injuries is NOT Enough – It Also Helps to Win (Poster Presentation)
Much of the current literature related to injuries in sport has addressed the influence of a particular exercise intervention on a specific type of injury without considering changes in sport performance.
Purpose: To investigate an interdisciplinary approach to athlete development and its initial effects on injury rates and measures of performance in collegiate baseball.
Methods: In October 2008, an NCAA Division I baseball team began working with a sport performance enhancement group (SPEG) which consists of a collaborative effort between sport coaches, sport medicine and sport science departments. Injury rates were calculated for each academic year from 2006/2007 through 2010/2011.
As part of the athlete monitoring program provided through SPEG, peak force was measured using an isometric mid-thigh pull from 2008/2009 through 2010/2011. Team win percentage and home runs were also reported from 2003/2004 through 2010/2011.
Results: Compared to 2006/2007 and 2007/2008, injury rates during 2008/2009 decreased 40% and 16%, 2009/2010 decreased 64% and 48%, while 2010/2011 decreased 33% and 6%. Team mean allometrically scaled isometric peak force (IPFa) increased each year from 2008/2009 through 2010/2011 (200.6 N, 229.6 N, 244.2 N). IPFa during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 were significantly greater than 2008/2009 (p = .001 and .002). Win percentage increased from 2008/2009 through 2010/2011 (47%, 53%, 63%) and the 2010/2011 win percentage was higher than any other year since 2003/2004. Total team home runs during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 were higher than any other season since 2003/2004.
Conclusions: These results seem to indicate that the collaborative efforts of SPEG were able to substantially reduce injury rates while increasing lab based and on-field performance.
Howard S. Gray, Satoshi Mizuguchi, L. Scott Calabrese, Justin D. Meredith, Christopher J. MacDonald, Marco Cardinale, G. Gregory Haff, Michael W. Ramsey, Adam L. Sayers, Michael H. Stone
A Comparison Between The Polar Team2 and Session-RPE Training Loads in NCAA Soccer Players (Oral Presentation)
Quantifying training is an important step in the training process. Doing so means that training can be objectively analyzed, appropriate training loads identified, and suitable adjustments made in an attempt to improve performance and reduce the risk of injury and illness.
Purpose: This study compared an emerging method of quantifying training, the Polar Team2 Training Load (Team2 TL), with the more commonly known Session- Rating of Perceived Exertion Training Load (S-RPE TL) method.
Methods: 19 NCAA Division 1 men’s soccer players wore Polar Team2 heart rate monitors (Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) for all sessions (totalling 125 team sessions) across 6 different training modalities during a 12-week period in the spring season. The supplied software calculated the Polar Team2 TL from the heart rate data. The players rated each session on a modified Borg scale (0-10 RPE), which was subsequently multiplied by training duration to determine the S-RPE TL.
Results: Correlations between session group mean Team2 TL and S-RPE TL scores ranged from very strong to nearly perfect across the 6 different modalities; cycling r = 0.932, running r = 0.888, soccer training r = 0.930, soccer games r =
0.952, performance testing r = 0.919, and weight training r = 0.925. The correlations were weaker but still significant when concerning the individual player sessions: cycling r = 0.894, running r = 0.762, soccer training r = 0.769, soccer games r = 0.698, performance testing r = 0.769, and weight training r = 0.665.
Conclusion: The strong relationship indicates that the Polar Team2 TL may be a useful form of monitoring a number of different training modalities in collegiate soccer players. Further research is needed to investigate the use of the Team2 TL for individual and team training assessments and adjustments.
Keith Leiting, Jake Reed, David Land, Michael H. Stone, Mike W. Ramsey
An evaluation of army physical fitness scores across classes among reserve officer training corps cadets (Poster Presentation)
Purpose: The goal of the study was to compare standard military physical fitness scores among Reserve Officer Training Core (ROTC) cadets of varying years of involvement.
Methods: Forty four male and female cadets (38 male, 6 female) performed a scheduled APFT test at the beginning of the fall collegiate semester. Instruction and demonstration of proper technique for push-up and sit-up events was provided prior to the test. Each cadet was given two minutes to perform as many push-ups and two minutes to perform as many sit-ups as possible, followed by the two mile run for shortest time conducted on a 400 meter rubber track. All raw scores and times were recorded on the Army Physical Fitness Scorecard as per FM 21-20, following which differences were obtained used the 4×4 multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) (Training, 1992). Tukey’s HSD post hoc test were completed to determine differences between classes once significance was found.
Results: Significant differences were noted for push up score, sit up scores and total scores (p < 0.05; Table 1), however 2 mile run score was not significant (p > 0.05; Table 1). MSI cadets scored significantly lower than MSII, MSIII, MSIV in all categories (p < 0.05; Table 1). There were no significant differences found between MSII, MSIII, and MSIV for any of the scores (p > 0.05; Table 1).
Conclusions: MSI cadets are less physically fit as determined by the APFT scores. Interestingly the MSII, MSIII, and MSIII do not seem to increase their physical fitness levels despite their continued involvement with the FM 21-20 training protocol.
Christopher MacDonald, Ryan Alexander, Adam Sayers, Howard Gray, Michael Israetel, Jeremy Gentles, Aaron Casey, Matt Sams, Hugh Lamont, Michael Ramsey, Michael Stone
Changes in Measures of Power in NCAA Division I Female Soccer Athletes Through Competitive Seasons (Oral Presentation)
Purpose: The purpose of this work was to use jump analysis as a practical method of measuring athletic performance and improvements.
Methods: Females athletes were assessed during maximal effort countermovement (CMJ) and static jumps (SJ), in both unloaded and loaded conditions. Testing occurred prior to and 5 weeks into two consecutive competitive seasons. Testing also included anthropometric assessments (height, body mass, % body fat) and hydration status (urinary specific gravity; USG). Variables considered for each maximal jump trail were: jump height (cm), peak force (N), peak velocity (m/sec), peak power (Watts), net impulse (N*sec), force @ peak power (N), & velocity @ peak power (m/sec) were analyzed during the jumps. Any differences between time points were assessed via a series of one-way ANOVAs. The nature of any between group differences was highlighted using a Bonferroni post hoc test. A significance level of p ≤ 0.05 was set a priori.
Results: Results indicated statistically significant increases in the following jump attributes: USG (p = 0.005; fall pre to fall post), 0kg CMJ peak velocity (p = 0.031; spring post to fall post), 0kg CMJ net impulse (p = 0.019; spring post fall post), 0kg CMJ velocity @ peak power (p = 0.017; spring post to fall post), 11kg CMJ peak velocity (p = 0.050; spring post to fall post), 11kg CMJ net impulse (p = 0.036; spring post to fall post), and 11kg CMJ velocity @ peak power (p = 0.029; spring post to fall post).
Conclusions: Results indicate that there is a substantial decrease in measurable athletic attributes during the NCAA mandated period of restricted coaching hours that could lead not only to a decrease in performance, but also to a possible increase in incidence of injury. The lack of allowance of structured training will only exacerbate the issue, leaving the athletes, at best, vulnerable to injury upon re-entering regimented, albeit scientifically sound programmed, planned, and executed training and competition schedules.
These abstracts will be published in Volume 44, No. 5 Supplement of Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise (MSSE), ACSM’s flagship journal.